The Delpasse-Effect

PSYCHO-SCIENTIFIC FRONTIERS Selected publications from a variety of subjects of psycho-scientific research. Editor: Rolf Linnemann (Certificated Engineer) * Steinweg 3b * 32108 Bad Salzuflen * Tel. (05222) 6558 Internet: E-mail: An astonishing discovery in the intermediate realm between life and death. Title : The Delpasse-Effect Taking previous basic research into account The following report has been purposely scripted in an entertaining fashion and it is therefore comprehensible to all and sundry. It is essentially based on the publications of the immunebiologist Professor James Bedford and the cybernetic Walt B. Kensington, who report about the experiments of the French cybernetic Professor Delpasse and his team and by taking the GreyWalter-Experiments onto account. Preface The DELPASSE-EFFECT belongs to the most astonishing discoveries made by natural scientists within the framework of research into the hereafter, ergo from within the intermediate realm between life and death. As with almost all progress within the sciences, the DELPASSE-EFFECT is not based on spontaneously gained insights. It is rather more the logical conclusion after a series of observations and discoveries made by other researchers a priory and the theories that were deduced from their works. Nobody is able to subsequently say where and when the long series of insights started. One can only select a specific event, thereby giving the series an arbitrary beginning. The arbitrary beginning of the DELPASSE-EFFECT could be determined by the moment Swedish and American researchers coined the concept of “memory molecules”, something that later on entered the annals of science as a mistake. About 30 years ago, Professor Jean Jacques Delpasse became aware of the works by, within scientific circles world-renowned, neurologist Dr. W. Grey Walters from Bristol, during a conference. Grey Walters discovered the Theta Brainwave in an EEG in 1943 and also the frequency follow-on effect that finds application in mind-machines. The EEG specialist Walters was at the time researching the so-called “standby wave”, an impulse that always develops when one mentally prepares oneself to undertake an action. The necessity to expand the dimension of the human consciousness grows everywhere. At a time when such insights can become common property, the possibility that something outside of any up to now know physical logic could be perceived, would awaken the greatest interest. Can this interest be a serious interest? - Our materialistic view of the world tends to accept something as legitimate, only when a lot of money is spent on it. The other side of the coin is that something

- 2 - might not be particularly reasonable, if nobody is prepared to invest in it. This is a mistake! Great nations have invested considerable amounts on researching extrasensory perceptions without immediately informing the public. This is how a border area between physics, biology and psychology, a new discipline came into being, namely parapsychology. This disliked child of the sciences will gain central importance in the future. Bad Salzuflen, April 2002

- 3 - 1. 0 The disowned hereafter 1. 1. Afterlife research in the background The universe is not something that exists independently from us “on the other side”. We inevitably participate in everything that takes place. We are not just observers, but also contributors. Even if we might find this strange, the universe is a universe of participation. John Archibald Wheeler (Quantum physicist) The question about the continuity of the human existence beyond death no longer only interests psychologists and researchers of the paranormal. Throughout the world, physicians, biologists, cyberneticists, chemists, physicists and engineers are engaged in researching this possibility. The cost involved with such research does unfortunately not only depends on the financial freedom of movement. A lot of researchers have to take public opinion and the benevolence of those around them into consideration. The technical facilities that are generally available for their work at institutes, universities and other research centres are available for researching the hereafter only on rare occasions. Their freedom of action is restricted, because they want the least amount of publicity for their investigations and there is a good reason for this: • Not every scientist has such an inviolable name like Albert Einstein, who could dare to formulate a preface for Upton Sinclair’s telepathy report “Mental Radio”. • Not all of them enjoy the high professional recognition of a Wolfgang Pauli who could dare to speculate, with C. G. Jung, about the non-physical nature of coincidence. Most scientists must have a fear of being exposed to ridicule, to experience professional hindrances or even loss of livelihood, if their engagement with the scientific underground were to be exposed. A professor of medicine, who is searching for the soul of a just deceased patient, would have to be considered untenable at most universities. Scientists that want to seriously delve into paranormal phenomena, risk being considered occult dreamers. Even though they are actually the exact opposite, namely: • Realists that are not prepared to acquiesce with the existence of the supernatural and are therefore looking for rational explanations. Researchers at the forefront of the unknown were always forced to take unconventional paths. They violated taboos and stirred up society against them. • Leonardo da Vinci hid corpses in his bed so that he could secretly study the anatomy of the human body at night. • Galileo, who was so careless that he promoted his ideas in public, was forced to disavow Copernicus’s view of the world under threat of torture. • Semmelweis exposed himself to the hatred and the contempt of his professional colleagues, because he declared that the uncleanliness of doctors and hospitals was the cause for sepsis. A lot of scientists still fear similar hindrances. They often perform their work in secret, because it

- 4 - could not be performed officially and because the sciences would not progress without it. A lot of experiments that would still abhor us these days, are being undertaken somewhere or have already been undertaken. Many an experiment is started without the public’s finding out - at least not until some convincing results have been achieved. 1. 2 CROSS CORRESPONDENCE - evidence of immortality At the beginning of the last century, five men made the decision to tell the world about their life in the hereafter after their demise. The first of their messages was received in 1906 by a lady from within English society. She suddenly discovered that she could write automatically. In a state of semi-awake relaxation, her hand guided a pencil as if by its own accord. Only after reading the text later, did she become aware of what she had written. The sender of the message from the hereafter was a man who called himself Frederic Myers. • The reports that followed - altogether 3000 transcripts over more than 30 years - were not only given to this one medium, but also to four other mediums in England and a well-known medium in the USA. The authors, besides Frederic Myers, were Edmund Gurney, Henry Sidgwick, A. W. Verral and Henry Butcher. If one can give the spiritistic literature of the 19th century credibility, one finds that this was neither something new nor something special. It happened over again that “controlling spirits” from the hereafter announced themselves and transmitted messages via mediums. But a collective company excursion from the realm of the dead had never happened before, undertaken by men that had been highly respected personalities during their lifetime. All of them had been members of the English Society for Psychic Research. • The Society for Psychic Research was founded in 1882 under the chairmanship of the Cambridge humanist Professor Henry Sedgwick. Its aim was the scientific research of paranormal phenomena. The reputability of this still existing association cannot be doubted in any way even these days. The list of its presidents contains the names of three Nobel Price laureates, eleven members of the Royal Society, one Prime Ministers of Great Britain and 18 professors, with 5 physicists amongst them. The presidents of the society included for instance: Sir Oliver Lodge, William Crookes, Arthur and Gerald Balfour, Gilbert Murray, William James, Charles Richet, Hans Driesch, Henri Bergson, Professor Mundle. Arthur Koestler is a member of the council. The task of the society initially consisted of inexorably separating the wheat from the chaff and to expose all fraudulent manoeuvres. The specialists they dispatched became the bane of all mediums. Many a séance these psycho-detectives participated in, ended the carrier of many a hopeful sensitive. The deceased members of the society - Myers, Gurney, Sidgwick, Verral and Butcher - had been able to practically study the problems of collecting evidence for years. They knew how difficult it was to differentiate whether a message simply stemmed from the telepathic ability of a medium or whether it could indeed come from the hereafter. They themselves had been looking with scientific diligence for methods that could withstand any criticism. The idea of a joint message from these five men from the realm of death might initially have appeared monstruous. But if such a realm really existed, such a message wasn’t just possible, it was actually to be expected from these men. If there was anybody at all, they would have been competent enough to furnish irrefutable evidence of the continued existence of the spirit. These messages were indeed formulated in a way that any deception seemed difficult to imagine.

- 5 - • Each of the automatic writing ladies only received a part of the message and it made no sense on its own. But as a piece of a puzzle of an overriding whole, it did make sense. Once they were correlated, these messages could hardly have come from anyone else but from the five deceased people. The themes were chosen from the special fields of human science, something the five had outstanding detail knowledge of. They contained particular details that were demonstrably only known to the deceased. No scientific examination has managed up to now to expose the many complicated details as fraud or self-deception with absolute certainty. A first class supernatural phenomenon remained - it entered the annals of paranormal science under the name of “CROSS CORRESPONDENCE”. These CROSS CORRESPONDENCES still cause the young discipline that calls itself parapsychology, some severe headaches. They are a part of the few pieces of evidence for a life after death and they cannot be simply dismissed. And as astonishing as it might sound, it is a highly unwelcome situation for this science. Immortality disrupts its concepts! This fact is however not as paradoxical as it might seem at first glance. Parapsychology had to pay for its middling acceptance as a serious science in a Faustian tragic fashion because of dealing with eternal life. Its whole existence relies on the pro or contra hereafter decision. Consider this situation on hand of a parable: A novice approaches the circle of our honourable natural sciences and humanities and demands recognition. What does she have to offer? One listens to her with astonishment: People that can read minds, people that can clairvoyantly see events or even gain a view of the future. Items that fly through the air without a recognisable cause. - Does this novice actually believe that she can scientifically verify the existence of such silliness? Yes, she thinks she can! Even if she cannot explain it to begin with. To actually verify the existence of paranormal phenomena with absolute certainty - would indeed be a scientific feat. This would be something the wise circle of our honourable sciences and humanities could not ignore. With lots of reservations, the novice is finally accepted. A mistrust does however remain. Under the supervision of a lot of suspicious looks, the novice behaves in an acceptable manner. She only deals with the things that are allowed. What is allowed is what can by necessity be explained as a secular, ergo worldly phenomena. The opponents of parapsychology eagerly await the arrival of spirit and plasma spitting mediums. How could a young science dare to make such a bold commitment? The commitment, namely that some of the phenomena can only be explained when one takes a “highly dubious” possibility into consideration: The possibility that the human spirit could survive death.

- 6 - 1. 3 A word in regards to fraud Whenever a case of extrasensory perception or psychokinesis is reported about, the first question is always about whether we are dealing with fraud or slight of hand. Such reservations are always appropriate. Fraudulent intentions do actually play a part in many cases. It has unfortunately happened that a medium that initially demonstrated genuine successes, tried to “enhanced” them later with fibs. But a second factor also plays a role: • Deep in their heart, most people wish that everything extrasensory may be fraudulent. Things that do not fit in with our view of the world alarm us. They further call into question our already insecure existence. This is why we tend to dismiss the things that we do not understand as fraud. This is why at first, only those things are possible within parapsychology, that are allowed to be possible. And this includes all the things that can be explained from within a secularistic origin, namely extrasensory perceptions and psychokinesis. • One denotes telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition as extrasensory perceptions, as the biblical gift of prophesy is called these days. • Psychokinesis includes ghostly appearances, poltergeists and all phenomena where items are moved without any visible physical influence. Telepathy and clairvoyance seemed to be the most possible at a first glance. Parapsychology does indeed make the world sit up and take notice in both of these fields.

- 7 - 1. 4 Professor William MacDougall and Professor J. B. Rhine, Duke University, North Carolina A significant about-face - largely undetected by the rest of the world - happened within the sciences in 1935: The soul was rediscovered. - This momentous occurrence is mainly thanks to two psychologists: Professor William MacDougall, many years at the University of Oxford and the University of Harvard, and the young researcher Professor J. B. Rhine. They founded an institute at the Duke University in Durham (USA State of North Carolina) that was designed to fathom the mysterious forces of human nature. The term “parapsychology” was coined at that time to describe a new subject area within the academic curriculum. These two scientists investigated “crazy things” like dreams, clairvoyance, telepathy and thought transference. But the deeper they delved into this new field of research, the more urgent the question: “If these abilities, they have nothing to do with sensory perceptions and other quite normal performances, are real - where do these “supernatural talents” actually come from? Do people, something that has been believed since the beginning of time, really possess something like a soul? Can it be verified? Can it be separated from the body? The Parapsychological Institute at the Duke University collected and closely examined ghost stories. Dreams and prophecies were noted down and one pursued all other events that seemed to be of an unusual nature. One developed laboratory test to examine so-called paranormal abilities. - The reality is: There are people that occasionally “see” things that take place in far off places and sometimes also in the future. Some might quite obviously defy place and time and seemingly also the laws of nature. But we are not dealing with a miracle when something like this happens, it is actually something natural. In his book “Extrasensory Perceptions” J. B. Rhine reports for the first time about telepathic and clairvoyant experiments that were undertaken at a university institute. He utilised a system involving playing cards depicting five simple symbols. Five playing cards depicted either a cross, a star, a waved line, a square and a circle. Rhine didn’t work with professional mediums, but with quite ordinary people - students or relatives of university staff. • With the first important result of his experiments, he discovered that many more people possess simple abilities in regards to extrasensory perception than one assumes. It had indeed been often attempted to depict the results of Rhine and others as deceptions, even though they could be repeated. But one cannot dismiss scientifically operated parapsychology that easily. Sociology, an equally “new” discipline, developed on hand of mathematical, cybernetic, technical and psychological means, sophisticated control mechanisms for testing groups of people. With a few alterations, these can also be applied in parapsychological experiments. No serious scientist would nowadays consider troubling himself with starting an experiment, knowing that he could already be attacked before he even started. The public’s scepticism is still infinitely great even with genuine experiments and its disbelief hardly conquerable even when faced with irrefutable facts. An experiment associated with even a shadow of a fraudulent manoeuvre would not be taken notice of. We can therefore confidently assume that Professor Rhine’s experiments took place devoid of intentional deceptions. But that was not enough for him. Careful precautions were taken in order to avoid unconscious falsifications. Attempts where clairvoyant abilities were tested were not allowed to be watered down telepathically. If a conductor of theses tests had been there to hold up the cards, the medium could have tapped into his thoughts telepathically. Such an ability has nothing to do with clairvoyance. The medium therefore

- 8 - remained alone in the room. The cards, whose sequence it had to guess, ergo clairvoyantly read, were mixed by an automatic device. When a lot of tests are carried out, the probability calculation can tell us how great the probability for or against is, whether an abnormally high number of hits indicate pure coincidence. Mathematics calls it a determined value that speaks against coincidence, the anti-coincidenceprobability. Rhine conducted thousands of test series with the same people. The anti-coincidenceprobabilities that arose from them were a few millions to one. Test arrangements from other institutes were reported in the meantime, that were supposed to have achieved values of 10 billion to one. • The tolerant laws of probability mathematics thereby indorsed extrasensory perception. And as the probability calculations based on large numbers tests are always right, the existence of telepathy and clairvoyance can apparently no longer be doubted. The tests carried out be Rhine were the first promising approaches of a new science. With methods that were mathematically unassailable, he verified the existence of supernatural phenomena. But such evidence was not yet enough for either scientist. After lengthy negotiations with major clinics and numerous conversations with terminally ill patients who were aware of their plight, they conducted the following experiment: Beds were constructed whose four legs represented very accurate scales. Doctors and nurses could therefore read the patient’s weight to an accuracy of grams and milligrams without disturbing the patient. • As expected, the patients gradually but conspicuously lost weight during their last days of their life. That was normal. But what was not normal was a very sudden, instant loss of weight at the moment of death. Every time a patient died the hands of the scales clearly indicated a loss. Virtually instantly! The dead body became around eight grams lighter compared to when it was still alive. Shortly after this astonishing discovery, immune-biologist Professor James Bedford and cyberneticist Walt B. Kensington reported that they had knowledge about an up to now unknown energy that could only be measured at the moment a person died. Based on the DELPASSEEFFECT, both researchers surmised: • The thing that is usually called the soul must consist of a code of a quadrillion of energy-quants. These energy particles, comparable to the bundled energy of a laser beam, leave the body when a person dies. Our soul is a bundle of energy. Energy is however, something physics has faultlessly verified, imperishable! Even very sceptically minded scientists could no longer ignore such facts. Every scientist that wanted to be taken serious decidedly rejected the existence of an immortal souls about 100 years ago - and this is where atheistic materialism developed from - today’s philosophers, physicists, physicians and biologists must therefore admit: • There exists not one single piece of evidence against the existence of the soul, God and eternity. Based on everything that we know about the here and now, a hereafter is much more likely than the ultimate “when you’re dead, you’re dead” notion.

- 9 - This is indeed a turning point that hardly anyone would have thought possible only a short time ago. But these facts have unfortunately been too little talked about during the past years and decades. But this simultaneously produced a second, maybe even more important “turning point”: Those that believe in their own mortality no longer have to put up with being called hopeless dullards. And: Theologians no longer need to twist the texts of the Holy Scriptures in order to make them harmonise with the sciences. It is no longer necessary to dismiss “miracles” or even abandon the idea of the soul’s immortality. Contradictions between religious truths and modern science do not exist. One is once again allowed to believe freely!

- 10 - 1. 5 The experiments of Professor W. Peschka Institute for Energy Conversion and Electrical Propulsion of the DFVLR, Stuttgart Russia is leading the world in regards to parapsychological research. It therefore seems a little unfair from a fate’s point of view that such an important discovery as the following should have fallen into the hands of a country that has been rather cautious with parapsychological research - namely West Germany. But this discovery is even more unusual than its country of origin. It actually doesn’t stem from, as everything else has so far, from something that deals with paranormal phenomena, ergo the praxis of psychologists. It showed itself exactly there where an ordered energy belonged and where its discovery could accordingly be expected - namely in the research institutes of physics. This discovery deals with a new energy, one that cannot be equated in any way with presently known physical knowledge. This discovery had initially nothing to do with parapsychology; it was discovered when one was looking for a new propulsion system for space travel. This took place at a research facility that certainly did not regard the exploration of extrasensory phenomena as their actual assignment: It was the: “Institute for Energy Conversion and Electrical Propulsion” at the German Research and Experiment Facility for Aeronautics and Astronautics in Stuttgart. It all started with an engineer named Zinsser from Idar-Oberstein. Zinsser had experimented for ten years before he asserted that he had discovered an up to now unknown energy. Mocking all physical laws, it was able to move objects from a great distance. The research results Zinsser was able to present where interesting enough for the institute at Stuttgart, that it went about testing its veracity under the direction of Professor Peschka. Experiments were undertaken over two years with all available technological finesse and the elimination of all interfering factors. The result was conclusive enough for the institute to decide, it had to be mindful of its reputation, to make it public. What had been discovered can be put in simple words: The engineer from Idar-Oberstein was correct! In order to get to this result, Professor Peschka constructed two torsion scales (Extraordinarily precise measuring instruments). The first scales was fitted with a genuine sample, the second received a mock-up for controlling purposes. The sample consisted of a container wherein calibrated electrical cables were immersed. The container was filled with water and then sealed. High frequency energy was then introduced into the sample container. The electrical cables acted as transmitter antenna. The energy burst was of short duration and it was exclusively designed to activate the sample. The control mock-up was not energised. The torsion scales that accommodated the high frequency activated sample now showed something very peculiar: Every time a fluorescent light was switched on, when lightning was seen in the sky or when another process related to the sending of the high frequency happened, the scales would move. It registered a change as if moved by a ghostly hand - and not just for a few seconds or minutes, but for one to two hours each time. The scales with the mock-up on the other hand registered no effect at all. The strange energy that moved the scales for such a long time must have originated from the activated sample. This on its own would have sufficed to give the physicists a headache. But the real sensation was yet to come. • The torsion scales actually didn’t just react to lightning and neon lights. It also moved the moment a person entered the room!

- 11 - Peschka could find only one explanation: The high frequency field people emanate provides the active sample with enough energy to keep the scales’ balance beam moving for a period of two hours! The experiments only succeeded when the irradiated energy contained a few, very specific frequencies. Only then could the psychokinetic interplay with the torsion scales be staged; the scales’ balance beam remained static with other frequencies. Peschka himself was of the opinion that the electro-magnetic waves containing the effective frequencies were capable of triggering a phenomenon within the atoms that one calls induced emission. What was the output of the torsion scales? As input, it received five minutes of high-frequency propulsion energy. In addition to this also the energy from a human high frequency field that is so minute that it can no longer be measured just a few centimetres away from the body. And what is the scales’ exertion? It oscillated back and forth for two hours! Even the first glance seems to indicate that we are dealing here with an extraordinarily favourable relationship between effort and outcome, between utilised energy and achieved effort. Peschka naturally wanted to know exactly what was going on and made some calculations. The result was a sensation! • The measured value of the discovered propulsion system was numerous powers of ten above the measured values of all other previously known propulsion methods! Electro-magnetic emanation, that is as weak as the effects of this field, cannot only be emitted by living cells, but it can also be intercepted by them. One has to assume from this that information can be transmitted from cell to cell with the help of the minutest of electro-magnetic waves. Peschka maintains that: “The development of a new science on the borderline between physics, medicine, psychology and biology could come into being later.” At the 4th International Congress for Biometeorology, W. H. Fisher and his co-workers at the National Centre for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, also reported that water reacted very delicately to electrical fields. Fisher also referred to R. G. Zinsser’s basic research and he reported about a strange effect taking place in water under the influence of weak high-frequency fields (Micro-watt to Milliwatt range), it indicated a change in the structure of the water and the retention of the influence as well as a laser-like effect on the transmission of the electro-magnetic waves in the water. Such activated water reacted very sensitively to cosmic influences for quite some time and also to the presence of human beings. Fisher thereby confirmed the effect that the German Research and Experiment Facility for Aeronautics and Astronautics in Stuttgart had also measured during numerous experiments. The complete report by Professor Peschka taken from the Zeitschrift Raumfahrtforschung, issue 2/1974, can be found in the appendix of this brochure.

- 12 - 1. 6 Physics is undesired One could have assumed that parapsychology would look for a physical explanation for its successfully verified phenomena to begin with. Amongst the founders of the British Society for Psychic Research were, as we have been informed, also respected physicists. They had honestly endeavoured to find an explanation for these incomprehensible apparitions from within their own field of expertise well before Professor Rhine appeared on the scene. The physical view of the world at that time, one that was shaped by the ironclad laws of Isaak Newton, did not allow such an explanation. They came to the conclusion that paranormal phenomena were not subject to Newton’s laws. But as these laws were not prepared to allow for exceptions, it could only mean that another WORLD ORDER must exist next to the physical world order. • Hidden like in a Russian doll, a second WORLD must be hidden in our world, one that obeyed completely unknown laws. Both of these worlds could apparently exist side by side without colliding with one another. The physicists of the Society for Psychic Research naturally found themselves in significant logical distress with this assumption. The fact that they admitted the existence of the unexplainable, speaks volumes about their unprejudiced spirit of inquiry. But 30 years later, when Professor Rhine undertook the experiments with playing cards, the world had considerably changed: • Einstein had declared that there were also other dimensions besides the ones that we were able to recognise here on our Earth. His Theory of Relativity had changed physical matter, the solid ground under our feet, into less than concrete, fleeting energy. Even time itself had become an unsteady factor, one that one could no longer securely rely upon as before. • Quantum theory eventually gave the old, stipulated view of the world of physics an impetus that nothing and nobody was able to glue together again. Men like Planck, Heisenberg, Bohr, Pauli, Born, de Broglie, Dirac, Schrödinger and many more, whose names have entered the history of modern physics, were shaking the throne of the old sciences that had been so hostile towards everything supernatural. Parapsychology’s chance had arrived. It would have been easy for it to make the new and unintelligible, well downright illegible appearing physics of an Einstein, Planck and Heisenberg its own basis. Psychologists only had to declare: We also have our place somewhere here in this unexplored REALM; this is where we want to explore. Such a decision would certainly not have been out of place. Newton’s macrophysical laws had given parapsychology an explicit rebuff. But why should the causes for paranormal phenomena not be found in legalities that take place below the order of magnitude of atoms? Parapsychology has up to now paradoxically avoided the golden bridge that was built for it. Instead of becoming a branch of science within physics, it rather turned into the domain of psychologists. This is indeed understandable, because the exploration of the human psyche gained decisive and rapid progresses during the last decades; one hopes that one will soon be able to fathom paranormal events with the help of these progresses.

- 13 - But one has to ask oneself these days whether this was indeed to only and the correct way? - Because whenever parapsychology managed to gain the attention of the public through entertaining ghost stories, it was when measurable, ponderable and repeatable test arrangements within physics were in play. Physics is not in high demand when it comes to parapsychologists. 1. 7 The experiments of psychoanalyst Dr. Jule Eisenbud, University of Denver The American psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and parapsychologist Dr. Jule Eisenbud is regarded amongst parapsychologists as one of the pioneers of thought and psycho photography. His book “thought photography” published in 1975, describes the sensational experiments with Ted Serios, a hotel employee from Illinois. Serios had succeeded in psychokinetically transferring images from his own imagination directly unto sealed polaroid-film under controlled conditions. Similar phenomena had been observed before and also after, but no other case received so much attention and acceptance. Eisenbud executed his experiments with Ted Serios at the University of Denver since 1964. Serios possessed the rather strange ability to expose the film inside a Polaroid camera by intently starring into its lens. These images did not depict what was usually seen through the lens - for instance the face of Serios or the room he was in. It showed what Serios has thought about; they were thought photos. Scientific studies revealed nothing else but that every known radiation could be excluded from being the transferrers of the thought photos. Eisenbud did not expect another result. According to Eisenbud, whatever they participating form of energy, he thought it useless to expect an answer from physics. It states in his book: “It is possible - as indicated earlier - that physics’ conceptual framework, subordinate to ESP phenomena1 as far as I am concerned, will never be able to accommodate these types of ideas. Insights like the ones achieved in mystical consciousness that doesn’t see things from an abstract point of view, might be able to provide a clear understanding of ESP and its nature in its totality.” In contrast to Eisenbud, a lot of other scientists hold the opinion that looking at things from an abstract point of view has done any harm. - But methodical scientific inquiries have often been hindered not only by animosities. Financial reasons often play a significant role . Compared with physics, particularly high energy physics, parapsychology works at time with test arrangements that would probably have been on a technical status of Copernicus or Galileo. • If the same amount of money had been invested in Parapsychology as in other spheres of public interest - we would probably have known whether life after death exists or mot a long time ago. Given the consequences such knowledge would have for mankind, one would have to ask whether it would have been more beneficial to invest billions here and not somewhere else. 1 All paranormal phenomena are summarised under the letters ESP.

- 14 - All in all, it seems that parapsychology had manoeuvred itself into a highly unpleasant situation. Taking the reputable attitude of serious science into consideration, it should not flirt with the subject of immortality. Its messages from the hereafter, like for instance the already mentioned CROSS CORRESPONDENCE, are therefore highly undesirable. Everything one deals with must be explainable within the framework of the world of the here and now. They are however physically inexplicable at the same time. - The logical dilemma is indeed considerable! If ESP1 phenomena do not fit within the framework of the natural sciences the question arises, which laws does it abide by instead? These must be laws that exist next to the laws of nature we are familiar with, laws that have remained completely hidden in spite of all the progresses within the sciences. One would have to assume that a second, non-physical ORDER for the functioning of this world, would have to exist next to the physical. 1. 8 The theory of thought molecules During the fifties, the American scientists James McConnel and Robert Thomson surprised the world with a sensational experiment. They had experimented with flatworms, limbless creatures with flat bodies that live in effluence. Flatworms (turbellaria) belong to the class of plathelminths. They do not possess blood vessels, but they already have a simple nervous system. McConnel and Thompson wanted to know whether animals of such a primitive construction were able to learn something. They illumined their flatworms with a bright lamp, something that usually made them stretch out. Immediately following the light signal, these animals received a mild electrical shock and this produce are rather severe contraction of their bodies. After more than one hundred of these experiences, every flatworm learned to equate the light with pain. They already contracted the moment the beam of light hit them, before the electric shock was triggered. • The scientists then cut all the worms in half. Each of these halves regenerated into a completely new worm. One could now expect that the worm that regenerated from the head part would remember the lesson. But to their surprise they found that the head section as well as the tail section had not forgotten what the complete worm had learned. The experiments by McConnel and Thompson initially remained controversial, because they could not be repeated in all their details. What remained was the insight that the brain must not necessarily be the only seat of memory. They came up with more experiments with flatworms and they eventually made a very strange discovery: • If the trained flatworms were cut into little pieces and fed to their conspecifics, they in turn learned the light-shock-treatment in a considerably shorter time that other, untrained worms. The knowledge in their devoured predecessors had in a mysterious fashion entered their own possession.

- 15 - The flatworm experiments conducted by McConnel showed that the animals that regenerated from both halves had retained their original memory. This led to the conclusion that memory must not necessarily be tied to the brain. It can also find a home in other cells of the body. This result was sensational! The New York Times headlines: “Devour your own professor!” The theory of the grandmother cell was popular right into the seventies. The memory of one’s grandmother for instance, was supposed to be stored in one singular cell according to this theory, A simple deliberation eventually however refuted this idea: As braincells constantly die, a constant obliteration of individual memories would take place. The memory of the grandmother would at some stage also be simply switched off - something that obviously does not conform with reality. The theory of memory molecules could not maintain itself. McConnel’s sensational experiment entered the annals of sciences as a mistake. 1. 9 The Backster-Effect The American Cleve Backster, one of the leading American lie detector specialists at that time, publicly asserted in 1968, that plants also possessed a consciousness. That they were able to telepathically receive messages sent from human beings or other animal organisms. - Plants certainly do not possess a brain. Do we already have proof for this assumption in our hands? Can spirit exist without a brain? • Backster randomly got the idea to attach the electrodes of a lie detector to a philodendron. He then poured water into the flowerpot. The recorder of the lie detector showed a reaction that Backster was familiar with from his human test series and was therefore able to identify: Joyful excitement. This gave Backster the idea to try the reveres way. He endeavoured to scare the plant. He initially did not succeed. The philodendron did not seem to get excited when Backster dunked its leaves in coffee, not even when he tore individual pieces from it. Backster then got the idea of scorching the plant. • Even though the plant had never come in touch with steam or fire, it seemed to accurately recognise the deadly danger. The lie detector signalled panic stricken dismay when Backster came up with the idea to hold his cigarette lighter near the rhododendron. Mind you - this was when Backster came up with the idea! Not that he actually carried out his idea! The plants managed in some unimaginable way to guess what took place in Backster’s brain. They reacted to his thoughts and not his deeds. For another experiment, Backster constructed an automatic apparatus that could tip living crabs into boiling water, even when nobody was in the room. The philodendron registered the second of death of the crabs with vehement emotions. It seems obvious that not only people are able to send thought signals that a plant can receive.

- 16 - One eventually decided to “murder” plants. One of Backster’s co-worker - none of the other participants knew who had been selected - was chosen to destroy a second philodendron in front of the other philodendron. All the participants then entered the room where the “murder” had taken place and where the surviving philodendron stood. • The moment the plant murderer entered the lie detector moved fiercely. - The survivor accused the murderer. The so-called Backster-Effect was born. Various institutes and scientists, amongst them the American physicist Marcel J. Vogel, have verified the Backster experiments and come up with their own experiment arrangements. 1. 10 When is a human being dead? In July 1924, the German Neuropsychologist Hans Berger succeeded with an experiment that turned out to be ground-breaking for the exploration of the brain. Berger had attached two electrodes to the scalp of a mentally ill patient and connected them to an instrument that can register weak electrical impulses. Neither the scull nor the scalp was damaged in any way - he did not establish a direct connection to the brain. But in spite of this, the pointer of the instrument began to move the moment the electrodes touched the head. Hans Berger had discovered brainwaves. In 1929, Berger published the first image created by the identity of a person: An Electroencephalogram (ECG). When one was still dealing with thought molecules and arousal impulses, one constantly talked about a thought molecule and an impulse that was followed by other, individual impulses. This was of course just a simplified way of looking at things. The reality is that the brain could perform precious little if it was to always send one impulse after another (in series). One knows these days that the whole brain must perform the same function a million times over simultaneously (parallel) in an infinite number of cells and that it is therefore pulsed through by arousal patterns on a continuous basis. Only a few years ago, brainwaves and electroencephalograms were concepts that belonged in neurological clinics and the public in general showed very little interest in. This only changed when Dr. Christian Bernard transplanted the first human heart in December 1967. This was the first time public opinion had to deal with the question, when are human beings actually dead? The heart of a corpse is useless for transplantation because its circulation has come to a standstill. But on the other hand, one cannot simply rip the donor’s heart from the living body! Apparatuses that provide artificial respiration for the donor or - in an extreme case - a heart-lung machine, help deal with this dilemma. These apparatuses can bridge the abyss between “no longer alive” and not yet dead”. The blood of the spender whose life is beyond saving, is supplied with oxygen with the help of a machine. The heart recipient receives a vital, living organ.

- 17 - The question arises: • Is a person, whose tissue does not break down because it is attached to a machine, already dead or still alive? • When is a person “dead enough” that one can turn the machine off? Or is one not allowed to switch it off at all, because it would constitute murdering a helpless organism? The necessity to find a new formula for what death actually means became increasingly clearer. An exact point in time when I person was dead had to be determined, so that one could harvest the organs. Brainwaves seemed to be most suitable to solve this problem. Only when the EEG no longer records any activity for some time, ergo shows a flatline, can one assume with certainty that the brainwaves have definitely stopped. But the EEG is only an indicator in regards to the activity of the cerebral cortices, but not for the functions of the brainstem. Flatlines are therefore only an uncertain sign that the brain is dead. The EEG should in practice be supplemented with angiograms as well as clinical and laboratory examinations when it comes to faultlessly determine the onset of the brain’s death. But can one actually do this? Professor Paul Glees, who died in 1999, said that brainwaves had a solid relationship with the mental processing of sensory perceptions. The slower brainwaves seemed to play a role when it comes to processing a memory content into a thought. Simply put one can say that our consciousness can only be accessed through brainwaves. This also seemed to coincide with the medical sphere of experience: When our brainwaves expire, we no longer have consciousness. With the determination we have gained an insight that makes us wonder whether it is a final capstone or a threshold to a new insight. If our consciousness can only be retrieved with the help of brainwaves, it must simultaneously mean that our consciousness dies when the brainwaves expire. The fact that brainwaves expire cannot be doubted. The EEG verifies this via flatlines. Medicine regards this as the moment of death. Do we stand before a capstone or on a threshold? We stand before a capstone if it is true that only brainwaves can retrieve consciousness and that consciousness dies the moment brainwaves expire. But we would stand on a threshold if we could verify that consciousness continues to exist beyond the expiration of brainwaves. If we could show that it is also possible to access memory content without the presence of brainwaves. There would only be one - indeed sensational - explanation: • The carrier of memory contents would have to be another, up to now unknown ENERGY. An ENERGY that outlasts the death of the brain. This ENERGY - we could at least conclude this within our working hypothesis - must be the CARRIER of the consciousness that survives death. Physicist and cybernetic Jean Jacques Delpasse and neurologist William Jongh van Amsynck tried to provide evidence of the existence

- 18 - of an up to now unknown ENERGY in a joint research project. Within the framework of this endeavour, they discovered the DELPASSE-EFFECT.

- 19 - 2. 0 The DELPASSE-EFFECT 2. 1 Neurologist Dr. Grey Walter discovers the standby wave We can assume that Professor Delpasse’ peers would not have shown the necessary understanding for his idiosyncratic ideas to begin with. It therefore does not come as a surprise that Delpasse kept his contemplations to himself to begin with, even though his contemplations and the construction of cybernetic machines during his everyday field of work did not go beyond what’s admissible. Cybernetics, who received its first impetus through the American mathematician Norbert Wiener, draws comparisons between information-storage in the nervous systems of animals and the information-storage in computers. About 52 years ago, the English neurologist Dr. Grey Walter constructed his “machina speculatrix”, a scouting robot. This small machine, displaying thought behaviour by reacting to light, drew the attention of experts within the ranks of cyberneticists. It gave Delpasse the impetus to take an interest in other works of the idiosyncratic neurologist from Bristol. It came to pass that Delpasse was stimulated through another experiments by Dr. Grey Walter to come up with an idea that was so unusual, that Delpasse decided to keep it to himself for the time being. Dr. Grey Walter sat a test person in front of an accordingly modified television set and placed a pressure switch into her hand that could be used to switch the set on and off. The test person was told that switching it on would display a very interesting image on the screen. The brainwave curves were collected via electrodes and recorded with an EEC device. It was determined that shortly bevor the test person activated the switch, an electrical impulse developed in the brain. Dr. Grey Walter called this electrical impulse “standby wave”, because the test person signalised the decision to operate the switch with it. The impulses received by the brain electrodes attached to the test person were now amplified with a suitable circuit and connected to the television set. The originally weak arousal impulse was amplified to a current surge that was powerful enough to switch the television set on. • The test person no longer had to operate the switch in her hand. It sufficed for her to think about wanting to press the switch, and the image appeared on the monitor. This however only functioned for as long as the appeal of the new remained. Once the interest of the test person waned, she was no longer able to produce a sufficiently strong standby wave. Convulsive efforts of will did not help either, only the natural excitement caused by curiosity was able to trigger a standby wave. • The results stands in striking agreement with the fact that human mediums are also only able to produce their feats in a state of relaxed attention. Even the most gifted sensitive is unable to display paranormal abilities with an effort of will. This could be the reason why paranormal events are almost always impossible to repeat under laboratory conditions. Spontaneity seems to be the premise - the way it is the premise for the production of the standby wave.

- 20 - 2. 2 Biofeedback - control of the subconscious Just like neurologist Grey Walter, his professional colleague Professor William Jongh van Amsynck also had a scientific interest in the subject of cybernetics. When one began to introduce the techniques of feedback into medicine, Professor van Amsynck was one of the first to test the new training methods on hypertonia patients. Essential control mechanisms in animal organisms, so for instance the control of biological processes in cells, function on the basis of the feedback principle. Nature invented biofeedback millions of years before the arrival of human beings. With its research into biofeedback, medicine had to very considerably revise its views of the nervous system. Anatomical differences between the impressionable and non-impressionable functional circles of our body seemed to have a well-founded meaning. There were reports about the strange abilities of far eastern fakirs or yogis who were supposed to be able to reduce their heartbeat on command, who could lower their blood pressure and body temperature at will and eventually fall into a deathlike state. They were supposed to able to remain in this state in a voluntary grave for days with minimum oxygen supply. But for as long as such experiments were only told by travellers from exotic countries, it was easy to dismiss them as “charlatanism”. But these strange miracle men from the Far East were then tested in scientific experiments. The results left no room for doubts: • These fakirs and yogis were indeed able to regulate body functions that were considered to be absolutely non-impressionable, at will. No Zen master and no yogi has so far revealed the panacea for this. The information is rather sobering: Meditation, ascetic going within until the first decisive success follows. The interest in this remained limited. But this changed immediately once the technology of biofeedback had been discovered. • Biofeedback connotes to learning of the ability of having an influence within a very short period of time with mechanical help. The system is simple: A test subject is for instance asked to slow down his pulse rate. He is attached to an apparatus that doesn’t have any influence, that only registers. If the test subject succeeds - it mattered not how or by coincidence - to slow down his pulse rate for a moment, he is rewarded through a flash of a lamp or a buzzing sound from the feedback apparatus. The reward signal remains constant for as long as the test subject is able to maintain his involuntary reflexes under control. But the reward signal stops once the heart rate increases again. Through the acknowledgment of his success or failure, the test subject learns in relatively short time to actually control his pulse rate at will. The remarkable thing about this is that he does not have to consciously invent a specific measure - like the contraction of muscles. He rather learns to subconsciously bring about a state of tenseness or relaxation of the whole organism and this will then trigger the success signal. After a little training, the disciple is able to “fly solo”. He can now achieve the desired state without the help of a biofeedback apparatus. Something a Far Eastern yogi had to learn over years through concentration exercises, the test subject was able to appropriate within weeks.